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# WAEC 2023 PHYSICS OBJECTIVE AND THEORY VERIFIED ANSWER

WAEC 2023 PHYSICS OBJECTIVE

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2b

The expression for the energy stored, E, in a stretched wire can be given by:

E = (1/2) * Y * A * e^2

Where:
– E represents the energy stored in the wire.
– Y is the Young’s modulus of the material, which measures its stiffness.
– A is the cross-sectional area of the wire.
– e is the extension or change in length of the wire from its original length.

The energy stored in the wire is proportional to the square of the extension and is directly influenced by the Young’s modulus and cross-sectional area.

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(4)
(PICK ANY THREE)
(i) Geostationary satellites orbit the Earth directly above the equator in a geosynchronous orbit. They remain fixed relative to a specific point on the Earth’s surface WHILE Polar satellites orbit the Earth in a polar orbit, passing over or near the North and South poles on each orbit.

(ii) Geostationary satellites have an inclination of 0 degrees, meaning their orbital plane aligns with the equatorial plane WHILE Polar satellites have a high inclination angle (usually around 90 degrees) to achieve polar orbits.

(iii) Geostationary satellites provide coverage over a large portion of the Earth’s surface (typically one-third to half) but are limited to a specific longitude range WHILE Polar satellites provide global coverage, as they pass over or near the poles on each orbit, covering the entire Earth’s surface over time.

(iv) Geostationary satellites observe the Earth from a fixed position, providing a continuous view of a specific region WHILE Polar satellites observe the Earth from a changing perspective as they orbit, resulting in different views of the Earth’s surface with each pass.

(v) Geostationary satellites primarily collect data for meteorological observations, weather forecasting, and telecommunications WHILE Polar satellites collect data for a wide range of applications, including weather monitoring, climate research, environmental monitoring, and scientific research.

(vi) Geostationary satellites are positioned at an altitude of approximately 35,786 kilometers (22,236 miles) above the Earth’s surface WHILE Polar satellites generally operate at lower altitudes, typically between 700 and 1,500 kilometers (435 to 932 miles.

(vii) Geostationary satellites provide a continuous stream of data and observations for a specific region, allowing for real-time monitoring WHILE Polar satellites have a lower data refresh rate since they pass over a given area less frequently. However, they provide a broader coverage over time.
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(5a)
(PICK ANY ONE)

Diffusion refers to the process by which fluid molecules or particles move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. This movement occurs due to the random motion of molecules, as described by the kinetic theory.

OR

Diffusion is the spontaneous movement of fluid molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. According to the kinetic theory, molecules possess kinetic energy and random motion, leading to collisions and subsequent redistribution, resulting in the even distribution of molecules throughout the fluid.

OR

Diffusion is the process by which fluid molecules move from a higher concentration area to a lower concentration area. According to the kinetic theory, fluid molecules are in constant motion, colliding with each other and their surroundings. These collisions cause them to move randomly, leading to the gradual spreading and intermingling of molecules throughout the fluid.

(5bi)
(PICK ANY ONE)
-Interference
-Diffraction
-Doppler Effect
-Polarization
-Refraction
-Dispersion

(5bii)
(PICK ANY ONE)
-Particle-Wave Duality.
-Photoelectric Effect
-Photoionization
-Compton Scattering

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(7a)
Fiber optics is a technology that uses optical fibers to transmit data as light signals, delivering high bandwidth, electromagnetic immunity, and low signal loss.

(7b)
(i) Fiber optic cables transmit data much faster than copper wires do because fiber optics use the speed of light rather than the speed of electrons.

(ii) Fiber optic cables are not affected by potential electromagnetic interferences that can come from proximity to heavy machinery like copper wires are
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8. (a) Simple harmonic motion is periodic because it repeats itself after a fixed time interval, known as the period, and the motion is governed by a restoring force that brings the system back to its equilibrium position.

(b) Two factors that affect the period of oscillation of a simple pendulum are:

– Length of the pendulum: The longer the pendulum, the longer the period of oscillation.
– Acceleration due to gravity: The higher the acceleration due to gravity, the shorter the period of oscillation.

9. (c) Two differences between absolute zero temperature and ice point are:

– Absolute zero temperature is the lowest possible temperature, at which all substances have zero thermal energy and all molecular motion ceases, while ice point is the temperature at which water freezes into ice at standard atmospheric pressure.
– Absolute zero temperature is an absolute scale with a fixed reference point, while ice point is a relative scale based on the freezing point of water.

11. The electric potential at a point in an electric field is defined as the amount of work done per unit charge in bringing a test charge from infinity to that point in the electric field.

(ii) The method of induction charges an uncharged body by bringing a charged object near it, causing a redistribution of charges in the uncharged body without direct contact. The method of contact charges an uncharged body by direct contact with a charged object, allowing electrons to transfer between them until they reach equilibrium.

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